While a growing number of U.S cities are outfitting police with body cameras, most don't require them for officers who moonlight in their uniforms at security jobs.
Experts say that leaves a hole in policies designed to increase oversight and restore confidence in law enforcement.
An Associated Press review of the nation's 20 biggest cities finds that just five have rules mandating body cameras for uniformed officers doing work outside their regular hours.
Most it turns out leave the cameras off when it comes to the millions of hours officers are working for private employers at nightclubs, hospitals and ballparks.
Police departments contend they have only a limited number of body cameras or there are too many logistical hurdles and costs to outfit off-duty officers with body cameras.