Total solar eclipse visible over Australia's Northern Territories

(CNN) -- A total solar eclipse occurred over the northeastern Australian coast early in the morning of November 14 local time.

Clueless about this spectacular astronomical event? No worries, we've got you covered. We're here to explain what causes this remarkable act of nature, what skygazers see and how those outside of Australia can join in the experience.

What exactly is a total solar eclipse?

A solar eclipse happens when the moon, as it orbits Earth, passes directly in front of the sun, obscuring its rays and casting a shadow on Earth's surface. Sometimes referred to as a "happy accident of nature," a total solar eclipse occurs when the moon is perfectly aligned with both the sun and Earth, so it appears from our perspective that the sun is completely blocked.

What's all the fuss about? Don't these happen frequently?

According to NASA, a full solar eclipse happens, on average, every 18 months. The last one happened in July 2010, crossing Chile's Easter Island, and one will occur over equatorial Africa in November 2014. But for any given region, a total solar eclipse only happens, on average, once every 375 years.

Solar eclipses were shrouded in superstition in ancient times -- in China, for example, viewing total solar eclipses was important for divining the future success of an emperor. However, as scientific knowledge deepened, these events became opportunities for conducting important experiments. It was during a total solar eclipse in 1919 that Einstein's theory of general relativity was tested and confirmed for the first time.

What's it like to experience a solar eclipse and what do you see?

A solar eclipse is often described as one of nature's most awe-inspiring events. Some people are so moved by the experience of watching an eclipse that they travel around the world chasing them.

About an hour leading up to totality, all sorts of things begin to happen. There are changes in the color of the sky, the temperature drops, birds and animals behave in a peculiar manner and shadows sharpen, according to Rick Brown, an eclipse chaser from New York who is viewing his 14th total solar eclipse. "I never really expected to be moved the way I was. It's a phenomenal thing to see," he said, recalling his first experience.

As the moon's shadow sweeps across the Earth, the sun turns into a crescent in the sky. Just before totality, so-called Baily's beads --- bright spots of sunlight shining through the moon's craggy surface --- can appear around the moon. Then the moon completely blots out the sun, leaving only a halo of light visible. After the brief period of darkness, Baily's beads might appear again as the sun comes back into view.

 
 
 
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